Federal Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Laws
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces all of these laws. EEOC also provides oversight and coordination of all federal equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies.
The Federal laws prohibiting job discrimination are:
Employers And Other Entities Covered By EEO Laws
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) cover all private employers, state and local governments, and education institutions that employ 15 or more individuals. These laws also cover private and public employment agencies, labor organizations, and joint labor management committees controlling apprenticeship and training.
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) covers all private employers with 20 or more employees, state and local governments (including school districts), employment agencies and labor organizations.
The Equal Pay Act (EPA) covers all employers who are covered by the Federal Wage and Hour Law (the Fair Labor Standards Act). Virtually all employers are subject to the provisions of this Act.
U.S.-based companies that employ U.S. citizens outside the United States or its territories, and multinational employers that operate in the United States or its territories, are covered under EEO laws, with certain exceptions. For answers to common questions about how EEO laws apply to multinational employers, please see:
- The Equal Employment Opportunity Responsibilities of Multinational Employers
- Employee Rights When Working for Multinational Employers
Title VII, the ADEA, and the EPA also cover the federal government. In addition, the federal government is covered by Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, which incorporate the requirements of the ADA. However, different procedures are used for processing complaints of federal discrimination. For more information on how to file a complaint of federal discrimination, contact the EEO office of the federal agency where the alleged discrimination occurred.
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (not enforced by EEOC) covers most federal agency employees except employees of a government corporation, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and as determined by the President, any executive agency or unit thereof, the principal function of which is the conduct of foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities, or the General Accounting Office.
Other Important EEOC Links:
A web site disigned to provide employers with information on filing the EEO-1 Survey. This includes information on who must file, how to file, online filing, when to file, job classifications, NAICS codes and descriptions, EEO-1 Survey System Privacy Impact Assessment, contact information, getting assistance, filing procedures and Revisions to the EEO-1 for 2007 filing.
An Employer Should Know EEOC Investigations
Explains what the EEOC is, What happens when a charge has been filed against company, mediation, settlement, conciliation, and how to eeoc can assist companies being investigated.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Enforcement Guidances and Related
Contains FAQs, Factsheets, manuals and other documents designed to help employers comply with EEO laws.